Cell division is a highly regulated process in which its growth and inheritance are controlled by its DNA or genetic material. Cell division occurs when they receive a proper signal from the growth factors which are present and keep circulating in the bloodstream or when they are signalled by a nearby cell to which they are directly connected. When a signal for cell division is received, the cell undergoes cell cycle in which it passes through many phases for the division to get completed, these steps are verified by the checkpoints along each step of the process. Any violation from the systematic process of cell division can make them cancerous. A cancer cell is the one which grows out of control, it ignores the signals which instruct them to cease dividing, to die and shed and also to specialize. These cells have the ability to travel and spread to different parts of the body. Cancer cells contain several gene mutations and it results in defective cell. This abnormality in cell division can result either when active oncogenes are expressed or when the tumor suppressor genes are lost. Gene mutations in the cancer cell enables it to invade a normal tissue where the cancer has started or to travel through the blood stream and to spread to other parts of the body where it can continuously divide.
Cell cycle control, chromosome maintenance, cancer cell signalling, cancer metabolism, cancer cytopathology, tumour biology, tumour cell interaction, tumour microenvironment, tumour progression and metastasis
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